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BTS - Anglais Chapitre 1 - Economy and Demography

BTS - Anglais Chapitre 1 - Economy and Demography

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BTS - Anglais Chapitre 1 - Economy and Demography

Extrait du document

Télécharger gratuitement ce cours d'anglais de niveau BTS sur l'économie et la démographie.

 

Economics: we are talking about the science and the systems studied and developed to make the economy function.

Economy: we are talking about the relations between work, money and trade.

Economic: this is an adjective. (no plural or feminine form in English)

Savings: money people tried to put aside on a special bank account to purchase an item later on, money not spent by people.

 

 

Plan du document : 

 

I. Introduction

 

1) Thomas Malthus's theory of economy

2) Karl Marx's theory : Relative overpopulation theory

3) Ester Boserup's theory : Creating a revolution

4) Alfred Sauvy and malthusianism

 

 

II. How can a dynamic economy influence an economic growth

 

1) A demographic transition

2) A natural and migratory balance

 

 

III. Demographic effects on the labor force

 

 

IV. Effects of demography on savings and consumption

 

 

 

 

 

 

I. Introduction

 

1) Thomas Malthus's theory of economy

 

Poor people shouldn’t be helped with money because they would have more children. The risk by doing so it was to increase the population and as the resources grew slower the gap and the possibility to feed them all was reduced.

However, Malthus was living in a period of demographic transition (from an old demographic regime to a new one).

 

Neo-Malthusian theory emerged to explain how overpopulation went against development as it avoided the country from saving money (essential to finance development).

 

 

 



2) Karl Marx's theory : Relative overpopulation theory

 

Télécharger le document pour voir cette partie

 

 



3) Ester Boserup's theory : Creating a revolution

 

Télécharger le document pour voir cette partie

 

 

 


4) Alfred Sauvy and malthusianism

 

Télécharger le document pour voir cette partie

 

 

 

 

 

II. How can a dynamic economy influence an economic growth

 

1) A demographic transition

 

a step-by-step move from an old demographic regime natural demography) characterized by a high birth rate and a high death rate to a modern demography controlled and characterized by lower birth and death rates.

According to the United Nations, the increase of the world population is directly linked to the Asian development.

→ India et China: life expectancy is improving, people are living longer, children death rate is lower because of literacy and birth control have helped to lower the birth rate.

 



2) A natural and migratory balance

 

France is seen as an exception. immigration in our country is only ¼ of the increase (60% for our European partners). It is because of a high birth rate that our economy is growing (after the 2008 crisis, the economy could not rely on it anymore and the French economy contrary to others like the German is still slowed down).

The European population increases thanks to immigration.

 

Migratory balance: the difference between the number of people who entered the country and the number of people who left it.

 

 

 

 

 

 

III. Demographic effects on the labor force

 

The labor force increases because of:

 

→ the increase of the population in general (a high fertility rate which has a long-term impact with phenomenon like the baby-boom)

 

→ the increase of immigration which has.

The number of people working went up to 11% from 1995 till 2010 and should continue to rise up to 10 more percent till 2060 with a pause between 2025 and 2035.

The number of people above 55 years old is going to increase too.

 

→ the evolution of the labor force also depends on new activities created and of the evolution of certain areas. Women’s work is now to be taken into account.

 

→ sociological factors: as people are getting older, it can have a negative impact the average productivity. (senior and their difficulties to manage new technologies).

 

→ the Immigration policy: if a country has a high unemployment rate it can try to block immigration to avoid disloyal competition from the migrants who accentuate unemployment and deteriorate incomes given to employees (migrants are less paid so employers are tempted to hire them first).

Welcoming migrants has a short term effect because it avoids secrecy, in the long run, Europe could see its population decrease and become poorer.

 

 

 

 

IV. Effects of demography on savings and consumption

 

 

With the same income, senior consumption is less important than junior’s consumption.

Salaries increase has you get older and you spend more but when you retire you consume less. Many young people get into debts at the beginning of their career (to buy a house for example), at the end they have less spendings but less income too.

A country with a younger population will have a lower saving rate.

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